According to the Torah, we are obligated to count the days from Passover to Shavuot. This period is known as the Counting of the Omer. It is regarded as a period of mourning, as a great plague befell a large group of students in Jewish history. The plague stopped on the 33rd day of the Omer. We traditionally celebrate on this day with bonfires and haircutting. The day is called Lag Ba Omer.
Shavu'ot, the Festival of Weeks, is the second of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Passover and Sukkot).
Agriculturally, it commemorates the time when the first fruits were harvested and brought to the Temple, and is known as Hag ha-Bikkurim (the Festival of the First Fruits).
The holiday is celebrated by staying up all night to learn Torah, and then hear the 10 commandments at sunrise. We traditionally eat only dairy at Shavuot.
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